School on the physics of equatorial atmosphere

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We are located on the first floor of Owens Science Hall. Search Input. Apply Remove. Department of Physics.The complete picture of the tropical atmosphere involves the interaction of convection and other physical processes with each other and with the dynamics, both locally and globally.

The organization of tropical convection, the interaction of multiple time and space scales, and the development and maintenance of equatorial waves are crucial for prediction in the tropics. The main aim of this study is to increase basic understanding of the physics and dynamics of the tropical atmosphere in the context of convectively coupled equatorial waves, and to use that understanding to evaluate the performance of climate and weather forecasting models.

It will be shown that current models have a poor simulation of these waves. ECMWF Reanalysis ERA and satellite observed window brightness temperature T b data have been used to diagnose the relationship between the dynamical structure and convective organization of equatorial waves.

In the real atmosphere the complicated space-time dependence of the ambient state can lead to Doppler shifting of the theoretical dispersion curves for equatorial waves, and to variations in the vertical heating profile and hence the equivalent depth h. Consequently, a space-time filter based on theoretical dispersion curves may fail to identify individual modes.

Here we develop a new methodology in which, after separation into westward and eastward moving structures, the ERA fields are projected onto the parabolic cylinder functions suggested by the theory. Based on the theory the meridional wind v solution of primitive equations on the equatorial -plane linearized about a resting atmosphere has the form of parabolic cylinder functions D n y. The q and r solutions also have the form of these functions.

It is seen that different equatorial modes have different meridional structure dependent on n. Values of the parameters are chosen to minimize analysis errors.

The methodology has proved very useful for detecting these important characteristics of equatorial modes. Figures 71 and 72 show examples of westward equatorial wave activity in July There is a convection low T b moving westward from central America to eastern Pacific, indicated by the blue arrow line in Figure It has a mixture of symmetric and antisymmetric components.

The convection and dynamical fields are consistent with each other and with the theoretical analysis. The evolution of the dynamical fields is closely connected with the convection. In the first few days when the antisymmetric component of the convection is dominant, the WMRG wave is prevalent and has the first baroclinic vertical structure with lower level winds shifting slightly westward relative to the convection.

The consistency between ERA and T b data from two independent sources further suggests the convectively coupled nature of these equatorial waves.

Extension of this analysis to several years of data will enable statistical assessment of the seasonal and interannual variability in the behaviour of equatorial modes, which can be used for model evaluation. It may also enable assessment of the seasonal and interannual variability in the behaviour of equatorial modes, which can be used for model evaluation.Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics category.

Climate category Climate change category. Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. Atmospheric physicists attempt to model Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of the other planets using fluid flow equations, chemical models, radiation budgetand energy transfer processes in the atmosphere as well as how these tie into other systems such as the oceans.

In order to model weather systems, atmospheric physicists employ elements of scattering theorywave propagation models, cloud physicsstatistical mechanics and spatial statistics which are highly mathematical and related to physics. It has close links to meteorology and climatology and also covers the design and construction of instruments for studying the atmosphere and the interpretation of the data they provide, including remote sensing instruments.

At the dawn of the space age and the introduction of sounding rockets, aeronomy became a subdiscipline concerning the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important.

Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real-time sensing device s that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object such as by way of aircraftspacecraftsatellitebuoyor ship. In practice, remote sensing is the stand-off collection through the use of a variety of devices for gathering information on a given object or area which gives more information than sensors at individual sites might convey.

In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of imaging sensor technologies including but not limited to the use of instruments aboard aircraft and spacecraft, and is distinct from other imaging-related fields such as medical imaging. There are two kinds of remote sensing.

school on the physics of equatorial atmosphere

Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding area being observed. Reflected sunlight is the most common source of radiation measured by passive sensors. Examples of passive remote sensors include film photographyinfra-red, charge-coupled devicesand radiometers.

Active collection, on the other hand, emits energy in order to scan objects and areas whereupon a sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target. Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on dangerous or inaccessible areas. Remote sensing applications include monitoring deforestation in areas such as the Amazon Basinthe effects of climate change on glaciers and Arctic and Antarctic regions, and depth sounding of coastal and ocean depths.

Military collection during the Cold War made use of stand-off collection of data about dangerous border areas. Remote sensing also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed. Other uses include different areas of the earth sciences such as natural resource managementagricultural fields such as land usage and conservation, and national security and overhead, ground-based and stand-off collection on border areas.

Atmospheric physicists typically divide radiation into solar radiation emitted by the sun and terrestrial radiation emitted by Earth's surface and atmosphere. Solar radiation contains variety of wavelengths. Visible light has wavelengths between 0.

This increases the temperature of the nearby stratosphere. Terrestrial radiation is emitted at much longer wavelengths than solar radiation.

school on the physics of equatorial atmosphere

This is because Earth is much colder than the sun. Radiation is emitted by Earth across a range of wavelengths, as formalized in Planck's law. The wavelength of maximum energy is around 10 micrometers. Cloud physics is the study of the physical processes that lead to the formation, growth and precipitation of clouds. Clouds are composed of microscopic droplets of water warm cloudstiny crystals of ice, or both mixed phase clouds. Under suitable conditions, the droplets combine to form precipitationwhere they may fall to the earth.

Advances in radar and satellite technology have also allowed the precise study of clouds on a large scale. Atmospheric electricity is the term given to the electrostatics and electrodynamics of the atmosphere or, more broadly, the atmosphere of any planet.

The Earth's surfacethe ionosphereand the atmosphere is known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. The largest-amplitude atmospheric tides are mostly generated in the troposphere and stratosphere when the atmosphere is periodically heated as water vapour and ozone absorb solar radiation during the day.Mathematical tools, such as differential equations and vector analysisand computer systems are used to evaluate the physical and chemical relations that describe the workings of the atmosphere.

The atmospheric sciences are traditionally divided into three topical areas— meteorology the study and forecasting of weatherclimatology the study of long-term atmospheric patterns and their influencesand aeronomy the study of the physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere.

In meteorology, the focus of study concerns day-to-day and hour-to-hour changes in weather within the lower stratosphere and troposphere.

Climatology, on the other hand, concentrates more on longer time periods ranging from a single month to millions of years and attempts to describe the interaction of the atmosphere with the oceans, lakes, land, and glaciers. For example, of the three topical areas, climatology would be the best equipped to provide a farmer with the most likely date of the first frost in the autumn.

The focus of aeronomy is on the atmosphere from the stratosphere outward. This field also considers the role the atmosphere plays in the propagation of electromagnetic communications, such as shortwave radio transmissions. Within these three major topical areas, the broad nature of the atmospheric sciences has spawned practitioners who specialize in several distinct subfields.

Scientists who investigate the physics associated with atmospheric flow are called dynamic meteorologists or simply dynamicists. When the investigation procedure involves the application of large computer models of atmospheric structure and dynamics, the scientists are called numerical modelers.

Scientists and technicians who specifically investigate procedures of weather forecasting are called synoptic meteorologists, while those who investigate the physical mechanisms associated with the growth of cloud droplets and ice crystals and related precipitation processes are called cloud physicists. Researchers who study atmospheric optical effects are referred to as physical meteorologists, while individuals who investigate the dynamics and observations of climate are called climatologists or climate scientists.

Paleoclimatologists are researchers who concentrate on ancient climate patterns. Atmospheric science. Article Media.

Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Roger A. Author of Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling and others. See Article History. Britannica Quiz.

How the Earth Works: A Quiz. Which device is used to measure atmospheric pressure? Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The only substance known to the ancient philosophers in its solid, liquid, and gaseous states, water is prominently featured in early theories about the origin and operations of the Earth. Thales of Miletus c. Kites equipped with meteorgraphs were used as atmospheric probes in the late s, and in the U. Weather Bureau recorded the ascent of a kite to 7, metres above Mount Weather, Virginia.

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school on the physics of equatorial atmosphere

Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More About.The Earth has an equatorial bulge of That is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane Image 1 shows a device that illustrates the physics of equatorial bulge. The ring is a band, made out of a springy metal. The elasticity of the metal makes the band resist deformation.

An elastic deformation of the metal band has a corresponding potential energy. That is, elastic deformation of the metal bands acts as a repository of potential energy. So what happens when you spin up the device? By driving the wheel you are doing work, which means the kinetic energy of the band increases. As the band bulges out some of the energy goes to elastic potential energy. In fact, once the device has settled onto a constant rotation rate the energy that was put into the system is divided equally: half the energy is kinetic energy, half the energy is elastic potential energy.

Why does the energy divide evenly like that? The key is to think in terms of two repositories of energy: kinetic energy and elastic potential energy. When the band bulges out kinetic energy is transformed to elastic potential energy. Conversely, when the spin rate goes down elastic potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy. When the spin rate goes down the elastic force of the band is doing work, contracting the rotating system to a smaller diameter, and thus increasing the kinetic energy.

The overall dynamics is somewhat similar to the case of communicating vessels ; if there is more of one kind of the energy than the other then some energy will flow over until the two are in balance.

For a planet the lowest possible state of gravitational potential energy is to be perfectly spherical. To be deformed away from perfectly spherical is a state of higher gravitational potential energy. The equatorial bulge of a spinning celestial body is a balance of two repositories of energy: kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy. Discussion Most people sense that the Earth's equatorial bulge must be due to some kind of equilibrium, but recognizing what kind of equilibrium it is is not straightforward.

Very often people try to understand the bulge in terms of a force equilibrium: often there are statements about a balance between a centripetal force and a centrifugal force. However, it's not a good idea to try and understand equatorial bulge in terms of an equilibrium between forces. It's when you understand it in terms of an energy equilibrium that you can see hoe it ties in with other phenomena in physics.

Because of a planet's rotation around its own axis, the gravitational acceleration is less at the equator than at the poles. In the 17th century, following the invention of the pendulum clock, French scientists found that clocks sent to French Guiana, on the northern coast of South America, ran slower than their exact counterparts in Paris. Any object that is stationary with respect to the surface of the Earth is in actual fact following a circular trajectory, circumnavigating the Earth's axis.

Pulling an object into such a circular trajectory requires a force. The acceleration that is required to circumnavigate the Earth's axis along the equator at one revolution per sidereal day is 0. Providing this acceleration decreases the effective gravitational acceleration. At the equator, the effective gravitational acceleration is 9. This means that the true gravitational acceleration at the equator must be 9.

At the poles, the gravitational acceleration is 9. The difference of 0. I have glossed over differences in density now.Questions, Comments? Kim, J. Anstey, F. Palmeiro, N. Butchart, A. Scaife, M. Andrews, A. Bushell, M. Dobrynin, J. Garcia-Serrano, and K. Hamilton, in press: Prediction of the quasi-biennial oscillation with a multi-model ensemble of QBO-resolving models.

Anstey, J. Butchart, K. Hamilton, and S.

Equatorial bulge

Bushell, A. Anstey, N. Butchart, Y. Kawatani, S. Osprey, J. Richter, F. Serva, P. Braesicke, C. Cagnazzo, C.

Chen, H. Chun, R. Garcia, L. Gray, K. Hamilton, et al. Hamilton, K. Geo- Space Sci. Kawatani, Y. Hirooka, K. Hamilton, M. Fujiwara, and A. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics20 14, doi: Richter, J. Kawatani, A. Bushell, L.

Atmospheric science

Holt, F. Serva, J.View the invitation (PDF), the list of attendees (PDF), Sandy Weisberg's presentation (PDF), or a slideshow from the reunion. Statisticians collect, organize, analyze, interpret, and present data. We are constantly seeking better ways to do that in more and more challenging situations, using mathematics, computing, and insight.

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The authors used monthly death records from the Puerto Rico Vital Statistics system from 2010 to 2016. One was a nice post discussing the challenges for AI in medicine by Luke Oakden-Rayder and the other was about the need for increased focus on basic research in AI motivated by AlphaGo by Tim Harford.

Despite the excitement around AI and the exciting results we see from sophisticated research teams almost daily - the actual extent and application of AI is much smaller. I was listening to the Effort Report Episode on The Messy Execution of Reproducible Research where they were discussing the piece about Amy Cuddy in the New York Times.

I think both the article and the podcast did a good job of discussing the nuances of the importance of reproducibility and the challenges of the social interactions around this topic. Sometimes, when I write a really long blog post, I forget what the point was at the end. I suppose I could just update the previous postbut that feels wrong for some reason. I meant to make one final point in my last post about how better data analyses help you reason about the data. In particular, I meant to tie together the discussion about garbage collection to the section on data analysis.

I just got back from the rOpenSci OzUnconf that was run in Melbourne last week. These events are always a great opportunity poutrelle de plancher prix meet people just getting started in the R community and to get them involved. As is typical for these unconferences, topic ideas were pitched via issues on the OzUnconf GitHub repo. The gist of Face ID is that it recognizes your face using a mathematical representation and then unlocks the phone when it can confirm that it is you.

When we teach the class an exploratory graph is the kind of graph you make for yourself just to try to understand a data set. An expository graph is one where you are trying to communicate information to someone else.

Communication Both of my podcasts have a co-host who is not in the same physical location as me. Therefore, we need to use some sort of Internet-based communication software (Skype, Google Hangouts, FaceTime, etc.


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